Re-Entry Programs & Recidivism: The Connection Visitor Information & Inmate Locator- Prison Inmate Search

Re-Entry Programs & Recidivism: The Connection - Prison Inmate Search

Re-Entry Programs & Recidivism: The Connection

Non Violent Inmates

Every year, the pundits have complained about the  high recidivism rates in the United States. A Approximately 725,000 inmates are released annually from prisons throughout the United States. A 2011 study by the Pew Charitable Trusts’ Center on the States indicated that more than 4 in 10 will return to prison within three years. Recidivism rates vary from state to state. California is at the high end with 60 percent and South Carolina is at the low end with 32 percent. Between 2004 – 2007, 30 percent of individuals released from federal prisons under supervision were returned to prison. Almost half of the individuals returning to prison were re-incarcerated for technical violations and not for new crimes.

Without effective re-entry programs, recidivism will remain high.  The returning citizens may have drug and alcohol addictions, 25% have mental health issues, significant numbers are not educated, and a criminal record will exponentially reduce their chances for employment. In some states, the unemployment rate for released inmates is 50 percent. Most importantly, many returning citizens need a stable and safe place to stay upon their release. If these issues are addressed appropriately, recidivism will be reduced.

For example, Michigan spends $35,000 a year to incarcerate an individual. It costs more than $35,000 a year to educate a University of Michigan student. Six years ago, the state decided to focus on the problems of reentry. Michigan now has saved more than $200 million annually by implementing aggressive job placement programs. Robert Satterfield, a 46 year old Michigan resident was imprisoned for almost six years for embezzlement. For months, he was unable to find employment. A successful reentry program, 70Times 7, gave him guidance and training. The program found a job for him with a local metalworking company. During a 16 month period, he received several raises, and was earning $13.00 an  hour. The company owner stated that he has six former inmates employed and they were among his best employees.

For our fellow Americans who agonize over alleged coddling of former inmates—effective re-entry programs actually benefits society in the end. Lower recidivism rates translates into lower crime rates, less prisons, more taxpayer’s monies available for education, etc., and a more productive society.

By Bradley Schwartz
Founder of prisonpath.com

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35 Responses to Re-Entry Programs & Recidivism: The Connection

  1. PrisonPath December 10, 2013 at 7:48 pm #

    The ultimate answers to successful rehabilitation and reentry will be found in addressing the “core causes” that drive offender’s actions and that also help to maintain recidivistic tendencies. As a former Asst. Secretary of the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitaiton, and as a member of the Governor’s Rehabilitation Strike Team, I developed a series of reforms for California that are designed to address “core causes” through the utilization of “transformative programming” in partnership with local CBOs, especially with the faith-based community (FBOs). For too long, governmental programs have largely ignored what I call the Negative Impact History (NIH) aspect from most offenders’ lives that has created the personal baggage that many inmates carry; it is what I call a “crisis of the human spirit” and government, per se, cannot fix it by itself. Most current assessment tools do not even come close to identifying core cause issues. We can have the best job-training and educational programs in the world but, if we do not also address an inmate’s personal baggage, we will not be achieving the best results in the overall reduction of recidivism.
    By Michael

  2. PrisonPath December 12, 2013 at 3:14 am #

    Michael, I would agree…but I would have to say this is true for most of humanity. I think the very practical reality that practitioners and researchers overlook is that most of these folks have the same problems, interests, talents, etc., etc. as the rest of us. When I first started in this industry, a friend of mine with 30 years experience working for Probation in St. Louis said to me, “Don’t make the mistake of believing that people in the system are much different than you and I.” Ten years later, every man or woman I have met who has successfully come through the system and landed on their feet has come back to me and said something to this effect: That job saved my life…or…if I hadn’t gotten a good job, I never would have made it.

    I am a firm believer that an opportunity to make money, a change of environment and a change of colleagues/friends…in other words viable employment…save people from recommitting crimes.

    Just my thoughts. I would be curious to hear more about your work. Also, I am always curious to hear other opinions on the matter.
    By Scott

  3. PrisonPath December 12, 2013 at 3:16 am #

    I agree completely about the job issue. During my pre-release, the majority of inmates were concerned about finding a job and a stable and safe place to stay. Most did not have either option. A job gives more than money, a job gives self worth and respect.
    By Brad

  4. PrisonPath December 12, 2013 at 4:26 am #

    And a job confirms in one’s own eyes & in the eyes of the rest of the society that one is indeed the same as every other guy + as I usually joke, a job means that in the evening all you want is crash out in front of the TV with a light meal! No time for one’s mates!
    By Martine

  5. Javan December 12, 2013 at 3:16 pm #

    I want to thank Micheal, Scott, and Bradley for their honest, responsible, and common sense approach. If people under correctional supervision were given meaningful and marketable vocational skills recidivism would plummet. Education has proven itself as a significant tool to eliminate recidivism, but that is only effective if the individual has good fundamental skills. However, if vocational skills are thought then higher education becomes an option after the ability to earn a living is secured. The formula is simple. There is always going to be a need for a slummer before there is a need for another clerk. Spend money training people instead of buying more militaristic toys for correctional personnel, and you will significantly impact people returning to institutions.

  6. Martine December 12, 2013 at 3:18 pm #

    Javan I beg to slightly differ. We cannot put all ex offenders in the same basket. Like in the rest of society, some will make good plumbers, others will make good university professors, others might become excellent nurses, doctors, wine makers, or anything for that matter. One’s personality and abilities should be what first and foremost counts. In France we had this case where this armed robber ended up killing a police officer, got sentenced to death, but his sentence was transformed into life when the death penalty was abolished. Studied all his way through his detention until he obtained a PhD in medieval history – and apparently his thesis was excellent – and he now teaches at the Uni. I don’t see this person succeeding in being a plumber. As a matter of fact he worked in a factory before he started committing crimes. I have followed lots of cases where people turned their lives around thanks to higher education. They were curious, intelligent people who had not had the opportunity to study earlier in their lives and this was what corresponded the most to their personality.

  7. PrisonPath December 12, 2013 at 4:37 pm #

    you made my point which appears to have been lost in translation. My argument is that vocational skills will enable those confined to find or create employment after release from whatever penal institution in whatever state. Once you can feed and cloth yourself you can proceed to and pursue whatever dream you desire. It was certainly not my intention to diminish anyone’s potential. The US prisons are publicly supported warehouses where human capital is wasted. That will change if it is mandated that people have a meaningful ( to be read as marketable) skill upon release. Thank you for your contribution to the discussion.
    By Javan

  8. PrisonPath December 12, 2013 at 5:23 pm #

    As an afterthought, in 1995 president Clinton in the omnibus crime bill eliminated eligibility for federal aid (pell grants) for higher education for people in prison. Effectively killing higher education in our correctional institutions. Personally, I literally know hundreds of people well educated and actively contributing former incarcerated people. The problem is that we have close to 2 million confined or under supervision and a systemically failing public education system. Consequently, the penal system ingest more than it is capable of giving back.
    By Javan

  9. PrisonPath December 12, 2013 at 5:37 pm #

    Great discussion. Javan, vocational programs that do exist are in great need of reevaluation. In other words, prisons and jails should be in a constant state of evaluating whether or not skills obtained in a prison vocational program translate to work in the private sector upon release. In many cases they do, but in many cases they do not. Unfortunately, we we are all well aware, these evaluations and changes often require funding which is non-existent right now…especially in the federal system.

    The other problem I have observed is this: Some institutions have remarkable learning and vocational programs. However, these programs are voluntary, and not enough inmates sign up to participate. Many of my BOP colleagues have struggled with serving those who do volunteer versus trying to motivate those who do not volunteer.

    And, I would agree with you both about higher ed options and how that changes lives. In my area, both Duquesne University and West Virginia University have involved themselves with Inside/Out programs. Typically each has students from their schools of social work studying alongside inmates at either SCI Pittsburgh, FCI Morgantown or at The Allegheny County Jail. The transformation of ALL the students is something to behold.
    By Scott

  10. PrisonPath December 13, 2013 at 3:13 am #

    you are correct Scott. Constant evaluation of existing programs would demonstrate the communities commitment to result oriented programming for confined persons. Indeed, one might call it responsible stewardship of taxpayer dollars. Yes, learning is a beauty to behold the transformation can be exceptionally stark the further the student journeys. Be well Scott
    By Javan

  11. paiutemom December 16, 2013 at 7:18 am #

    are there any of the mentioned programs available in California? Also, in reality, 90% of the c.o.’s WANT these people coming back; after all,…..job security and a retirement that can’t be beat!

  12. PrisonPath December 17, 2013 at 7:14 pm #

    I want to thank all of you for participating in the the discussion. Betty reaffirms my belief that offender reintegration is largely a function of regional norms and resources. I am sure that most urban areas would love to follow Betty’s formula. But are prevented by population density. As a formerly incarcerated person in NYS. Who has served over 15 years in NY’s maximum facilities, I can say with absolute certainty that the human spirit is not diminished during confinement — ambition is often a function of self image and opportunity and the more opportunities provided the more realistic a persons self image may become. As I try to determine which of my passions ( for i am passionate about a few things) will permit me to succeed at PH.D level work. I am heartened in the accomplishments of other men and woman who have and are overcoming the stigma of past infraction. And the fortitude of those who care and work towards making the experience of confinement more humane and responsible. By the way — Mandela, the most celebrated ex-offender in recent history — said, ” I look forward not back”.
    By Javan

  13. PrisonPath December 17, 2013 at 7:25 pm #

    Well said Mr. Higgins. Of course, it is an everyday struggle looking forward; people can be so hateful and spiteful trying to keep you down with their philosophies of “perception is reality” and “once a felon always a felon” as I am reminded every chance “they” get. In small rural communities gossip and half-truths are spread and no matter what one does to dispel their hateful gossip, they simply refuse to see you how you really are and choose to see you as they wish to; not good! Keep the faith as we all are…..
    By Pamela

  14. PrisonPath December 17, 2013 at 7:27 pm #

    Jesus, kicked the dust from his feet. Sometime people have to move for their own development and growth. Comfort zones are sometimes hinderences for people who are unwilling to change their circumstances. Hateful speech is only as impactful as you allow it to be and gossip is generally more of an indicator of the shallowness of the person doing the talking than the person whom it is directed against. Tell those who gossip to get a life and Ki_s your A … . Then spend your life contributing the the growth of others and yourself.
    life is good, after all if they talked about Jesus what chance do you have.
    By Javan

  15. PrisonPath December 18, 2013 at 4:36 pm #

    Pamela

    volunteer/activist/advocate/somewhat challenged!

    A heartfealt THANK YOU; sometimes we need encouragement. God Bless.

  16. PrisonPath December 18, 2013 at 4:37 pm #

    Javan

    Adjunct Professor

    You are welcome pam. I know its frustrating as a formerly incarcerated person I know the struggle. I was incredibly fortunate to get an adjunct appointment at a university, but even then adjuncts only amke about 3000 per class without benefits. No security and possibly like you when I apply for mainstream employment and disclose my criminal history organizations are no longer interested. It is a struggle. But you paid your dues. you went through at least 6 years of boring professsors, student loans, and student living in order to pursue a profession that you loved in order to help people. Thats counts for something. It speaks to your core — your roots — the person you are and, I say that counts for something.
    Keep your head up . Chances are the people ridiculing you havent put half the time in trying to better themselves in order to help others. Havent you noticed that there is a collaboration between bigotry and education? The more of one you have the less of the other is present. Things will get better. He never gives us more than we can stand

  17. PrisonPath December 18, 2013 at 4:38 pm #

    Martine Herzog-Evans

    Law Professor at the University of Reims, France

    In French we do not use expressions such as “once a felon always a felon””. But there’s a good one for people who use it: “once an idiot always an idiot’

  18. PrisonPath December 18, 2013 at 4:39 pm #

    By Roger–

    I would like to take this back to the top of this conversation. The first comment, about crisis of the spirit, hits closer to the core of this for me than jobs. What I’ve noticed in conversations with inmates and those recently released, is a kind of deep personal baggage that’s attached to triggers – some well understood by the person – which, when set off, lead to all sorts of trouble very quickly – and result in restrictions for those in prison and a trip back in for those on the outside. Without addressing deep issues – and I agree with Michael about current assessments missing the point – these triggers are time bombs which can bring an explosion even when things are going well – even when people have a job.

  19. PrisonPath December 18, 2013 at 4:40 pm #

    I would like to take this back to the top of this conversation. The first comment, about crisis of the spirit, hits closer to the core of this for me than jobs. What I’ve noticed in conversations with inmates and those recently released, is a kind of deep personal baggage that’s attached to triggers – some well understood by the person – which, when set off, lead to all sorts of trouble very quickly – and result in restrictions for those in prison and a trip back in for those on the outside. Without addressing deep issues – and I agree with Michael about current assessments missing the point – these triggers are time bombs which can bring an explosion even when things are going well – even when people have a job.
    By Roger.

  20. PrisonPath December 18, 2013 at 4:41 pm #

    Roger, I agree. As a recovered meth addict of 12 years and 2x Felon I was lucky enough to be accepted into the Tulsa, OK Women In Recovery program, a prison diversion program, instead of spending the next 10 years in prison ( crime committed June 2010 – would have been Expected release year 2020).

    In this program I was able to conquer the demons of childhood abuse in safe and accountable environment. Today, instead sitting in 6 x 8 cell, learning worse things than knew before, I have been clean of meth since 06/2010, graduated the year long out-patient treatment program know as Women in Recovery 12/2011 (i completed in a 1 and a half ~ I was stubborn), and am currently making a self sufficient wage working for Workforce Tulsa as the Outreach Manager for the Hard to Serve population (my people). I believe in programs that deal directly with core issues, mental health, and spiritual well-being because if any of those are not in balance in the individual life and if they are not given to right tools , they can not be successful.

    As for the job, yes it is dire that one has a job, but not just any job. An individual who is convicted of a crime can walk away with anywhere between $100 to $100,000 worth of fines, plus have their license suspended and a charge on their record. The job must be a self sufficient wage. In order to obtain that wage one must have skills. We, as a community, must work hard in getting this population job ready. Workforce Tulsa, a federally funded job training program (Workforce Investment Act of 98) is working closely with this population to make sure they have the skills they need, but that isn’t the only battle. We fight the stigma that Employers have about hiring those with a background. It’s an on going battle to help this population, but its one I am willing to Fight for. We try to conquer this by educating local Employers on different elements on the judicial system, using success stories from other Employers and offering paid Work Experience Contracts (workforce pays) and On-The-Job Training Contracts (workforce reimburses employer up to 50% of client wage) to help this population get there foot in the door, from there they have to prove they are worth keeping.
    By Nicole.

  21. PrisonPath December 18, 2013 at 4:50 pm #

    Since I initiated this discussion, it has been rewarding to see the thoughtful comments about the major issues of Re-Entry programs and recidivism. Hopefully our society will realize that it is beneficial for all if returning citizens are given appropriate help in terms of a safe and stable place to live and a job.
    By Bradley Schwartz

  22. PrisonPath December 18, 2013 at 7:16 pm #

    I would be cautious about identifying the behavior of addicted persons with those who commit crime purely for financial gain or exictment. One is arguably a behavior encouraged by psychological and emotional needs stimulated by substance abuse and the other the need or compulsion to get money. The trigger language is more prominate where substance abuse is an issue. Not poverty, greed, or excitement in my humble opinion. Both populations need in most cases to develop better coping skills and life management opinions but the motivation for these two group is often, I think very different and ought not be lumped together when addressing or conducting a needs analysis.
    By Javan.

    • PrisonPath December 22, 2013 at 4:35 pm #

      Hi Josh,

      Great article. I appreciate your forwarding the article to prisonpath.com.

  23. PrisonPath December 23, 2013 at 2:12 pm #

    Blessings & Much Peace !
    To All of The Re Entry Professionals and your love ones.
    May you have a Blessed closing of the year of 2013, and that you have a Blessed Grand opening of the year of 2014.
    My family and I are based in Charlotte, North Carolina.
    Our Ministry has developed a prison outreach Green Nu-Entry Aftercare Employment Model.
    We have developed a general standard green industrial curriculum, that is OSHA Standard.
    We are in need of your leadership and mentorship we have developed the business model to where can create green jobs within the recycling industries.

    We are in need of some start up funding to help us in our efforts to employ 30@ formerly incarcerated people and people under parole and probation supervision.
    We have been able to obtain our first service contract to create the employment .
    We are in need of bridge funding until we can generate our first funding payment for our services being provided to the recycling industries.
    We make money by the pounds by sorting and bailing co-mingled recyclable materials.

    If any one of you can provide leadership and mentorship our ministry can use your expertise.
    As we service our returning citizens.
    Pastor Robinson
    704-819-7897
    http://www.catoeacadmy.com
    By Joseph T Robinson Jr

  24. PrisonPath December 23, 2013 at 2:13 pm #

    Amen.
    By Pamela

  25. PrisonPath December 24, 2013 at 1:40 am #

    To all of you who serve those that are returning to society. Let them know that they are powerful, intelligent and productive. We all have to change our thinking in order to be able to GORW….
    By emory

  26. PrisonPath January 10, 2014 at 6:43 pm #

    As a former probation officer. Anything that helps recidivism from happening is good. It was like a revolving door. I knew them and they knew me very well. It shouldn’t be like that. Once and done should be the motto.
    By Lisa

  27. PrisonPath January 13, 2014 at 3:15 am #

    Tell that to the probation officers, polices, judges, lawyers, construction workers building prisons and/or correctional officers. It’s a business and we we’re the ones unemployed while they reap the benefits.
    By Marlo

  28. PrisonPath January 13, 2014 at 6:47 pm #

    I think it’s easy to point fingers and cast blame but doing that doesn’t solve any problems. Every person coming out of prison is dealing with a different set of issues. What may help one person may not help the next. What we need is for entire communities to embrace the idea of using community resources to address the criminogenic needs of people coming out of prison. That includes probation and parole, police, judges, employers, prosecutors, etc. My experience is that these people are looking for alternatives to prison because the prisons are simply too full to keep doing what we’ve been doing. Here in Lancaster we have a community wide coalition that includes over 50 entities. Probation and parole, the DA, and the county prison are all part of that partnership. We’ve seen a dramatic shift in out recidivism numbers as a result …
    By Andrew

  29. PrisonPath January 14, 2014 at 3:06 am #

    Amen!!
    By Marlo

  30. PrisonPath January 14, 2014 at 7:55 pm #

    Andrew said it well! Thanks.
    By Kim

  31. Tirtzah Bat Sarah June 29, 2015 at 11:58 pm #

    Wanted to respond to several comments here: Michael wrote:

    “I am a firm believer that an opportunity to make money, a change of environment and a change of colleagues/friends…in other words viable employment…save people from recommitting crimes.” By Michael

    In response Brad wrote:

    “I agree completely about the job issue. During my pre-release, the majority of inmates were concerned about finding a job and a stable and safe place to stay. Most did not have either option. A job gives more than money, a job gives self worth and respect”. By Brad

    Then Martine also brought up a great point saying, (but not per se quoting here):That when x- inmates do have a full time job, they come home tired and just want to eat, take a shower and relax. As a society, we have already determined that the best way to keep our teens out of trouble is by giving them something to do with their time and minds that is satisfying to them and from which they derive enjoyment. Thus getting them “off the streets” and not having “too much idle time on their hands” with nothing to do, nor any incentive with which to do it. By Martine

    There were 32 post responses all having some excellent points. These three I think “hit the nail on the head”! What are we thinking as a society? It is rare to find any employer out there today which does not advertise their job openings and ending them with….”Must pass a complete background check”. So if as a commercialized society, we do not make jobs available to these ex cons, (those who were not convicted of a violent crime, nor of embezzlement, etc.), aren’t we basically telling them, “We will not allow you to work an honest job to make an honest living in our community! Therefore, in order to support yourselves, and/or any family members, you will have to engage in illegal activities to gain that money”?

    As I said, I wouldn’t want to be a business owner and be forced to hire an ex-con who just left prison for embezzling money from his/her last employer. Or one who got angry and shot up their boss and/or co-workers. I wouldn’t want to run a daycare or school and be told I had to hire a sex offender, etc. So yes, there are some ground rules to be laid for the suggestion that I have as a solution to this issue.

    Basically, my thoughts are we are a country who has developed a “non-discriminatory” baseline for whom an employer has to consider offering a job to. This is a good thing. However, we have not extended this law against discrimination, to our ex-cons. There are some Federal and State laws in place where a business of a certain size must employ a certain percentage of each “minority”. Why is this not also required of businesses and companies for hiring a certain percentage of ex-cons?

    Sure, we are still going to have those parolees who come out just as lazy, looking to “get rich quick” with the “least amount of effort” on their part. These however, probably wouldn’t be out there “beating the pavement” trying to find a job anyway!
    But for those who are released from prison, now with a criminal record, who ARE earnestly seeking to find a job doing something, anything…they are the very ones to whom we need to be “protecting” with our “laws against discrimination”!

    In addition to this, rather than NOT supplying them with any job offers, nor providing them from with any place to live and “launch out”….we are releasing them back into society without any chance for them to succeed! The statistics is it costs our government $30,000 per year, per inmate! That’s crazy! Why do we choose to spend our tax dollars “housing criminals”? Why not instead build some “half-way” houses for them to go to for up to one year?

    At the half-way house, they would have a clean room and receive like coffee and cereal for breakfast, a bag lunch to take to work and a hot meal in the evening. Here they would have a place to keep their personal hygiene products and a dresser and closet to keep their clothes. This way they don’t stink from having no place to shower and they don’t walk around looking for work carrying everything they own with them. I volunteer at our local homeless shelter and the people are not allowed to leave their belongings there during the day while they go out to look for work. Yet the portion of the building where their beds are will not even be used until they return that evening at 6pm! They would have to keep their items up on their beds so that those who come in to vacuum and clean don’t have to move their stuff around and it isn’t in the cleaning crews way. But it is crazy to expect them to be able to go apply for a job carrying a huge duffle bag, a back pack and a trash bag full of their dirty laundry! They also would have assigned 2 days a week at these half-way houses in which to be able to do their own laundry.

    When a person is first released and comes to stay at the facility, the facility would provide their personal hygiene products, clean undergarments and socks, laundry soap and maybe a voucher to the local thrift store to purchase for enough clothes for a week. Those who are not yet working would in turn “pull their weight” by doing chores around the facility. Yard mowed, meals cooked, cleaning in the common areas and shared bathrooms, etc. Some could even be offered employment right there at the facility keeping it going.

    Then once the person does find work, they would pay a certain percentage of whatever their income is towards their room and board, utilities, Cable or Satellite TV, and monthly payments on that facilities vehicles and vehicle insurance. Thus, there would be an initial set up cost involved in materials and some in labor to build these half-way houses and the lots on which to build them. As well as the supplies for cleaning, furniture, appliances and supplies each person there at first would need to be supplied to them until such time as they do find employment.

    Here at these facilities also they would be evaluated to see if there are mental/emotional/physical issues the person has which prevents them from finding and holding down a job. Some of these half-way houses could be set up and geared towards these types of issues. One place being an addiction issue place where those there could receive help. Others could be trained in daily living skills while still others could be taught how to balance a checkbook, how to clean, cook, do laundry, etc.

    Well, you get the idea now. Over all, we would save millions of dollars doing this for up to one year of a persons first year out of prison. Compared to the ongoing, yearly cost of $30,000 per each person who’s only real “crime” was doing the initial illegal/unlawful activity and getting a criminal record to in the first place! Because, had this person these above provisions and opportunities to work earnestly to turn their own life around, that person would have never committed that 2nd crime which resulted in landing them right back in our prison systems again!

    Those are my thoughts on this. I would be interested to see what others think of my ideas? If it makes sense to a lot of other people, then I will take this further to the Governor and/or Congressman and Senators to see if something like this could possibly become a law (in requiring employers to hire a certain percentage of those with a criminal record). As well as pursuing the building of these half-way houses and acquiring the funding to do so.

  32. PrisonPath June 30, 2015 at 1:08 am #

    The last comment by Tirtzah was right on the mark. By providing appropriate assistance to inmates who are released will reduce the high rate of recidivism and save society countless dollars. I suggested in one of my posts that the federal government implement a program similar to FDR’S program to employ the unemployed during the depression.

    The United States can stop its policy of mass incarceration. Many inmates are locked up because of parole/probation violations. If you release an inmate without a stable place to live, a job to provide economic support & self worth, you have the ultimate recipe for an inmate who will become another recidivist statistic.

    Tirtzah’s suggestion to apply employment discrimination protection in a realistic approach to released inmates would go a long way to bringing down our high recidivism rate and provide our returning citizens the tools to be productive members of society.

    By: Brad
    Founder of prisonpath.com

  33. isireli July 9, 2015 at 12:42 am #

    Offenders are not bad people, they just a made wrong decision and are going through the consequences of those decisions. I do believe though one have broken the law, it doesn’t make him or her any less human.

    We can solve the problem of recidivism if we realize as members of the community, we have the most important role and that is the successful reintegration of an offender back into our community.

    We must never forget that these men and women were not born in prison, they were born in a home, they have a family, they are mums, dads, bros, sisters, uncles and aunts!!!

    If Mr. Nelson Mandela can make a difference in his COUNTRY, why cant we?A great leader once said, “The Humanity of Nation, lies in the treatment of it’s prisoners” Indra Gandhi.

    ID

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